Among others, R&D in the Netherlands – by Conoship, TNO Delft and other partners – leads to feasible and practical ship-based solutions, utilizing ‘the cold’ of the LNG (-160 dgr. C) to liquefy the CO2 and store it in regular liquid-CO2-tankcontainers on board. The captured CO2 can be unloaded while bunkering LNG, to be stored for example offshore in empty gas fields, for which infrastructure is under development in Norway (Northern Lights), Rotterdam (Porthos), Amsterdam (Athos) and by parties like CarbonCollectors.
As the captured and liquefied CO2 can be ‘food-grade’, wider utilization is foreseen in the future as an important and valuable feedstock for the production of synthetic fuels, like synthetic-kerosine, -diesel, -methanol or -methane. Next to ‘green hydrogen’, the production of synthetic fuels requires vast amounts of CO2, for which ‘direct air capture’ is a very inefficient source.
The same ships that actually are fueled by LNG (= abt. 85% Methane CH4), can be fueled in the future by Liquified Synthetic-Methane (LSM, 100% CH4), using the same existing LNG-infrastructure. A closed carbon-loop can be realized by capturing the CO2 after the combustion of LSM in the ship, liquefying it and providing it as feedstock to the producer of the Liquified Synthetic Methane.